The first anniversary of the Russia-Ukraine war was marked by a significant change in arms supplies by Western countries.
In early 2022, many countries were unwilling to provide Kyiv with heavy arms, but at the end of 2022, the US announced deliveries of Patriot air defense systems, and last month, Germany gave green light for the deliveries of Leopard 2 tanks.
Washington has been Ukraine’s staunchest military partner since the start of the war, and it has provided more weapons and equipment than all other countries together.
In a fact sheet released by the White House on Feb. 20, Washington’s total military assistance to Ukraine reached $30.4 billion since the beginning of the Biden administration, and approximately $29.8 billion since the start of the war.
It also showed that the country has provided vast quantities of military equipment, weapons, and ammunition as well as defense systems.
These included over 1,600 Stinger anti-aircraft systems, more than 8,500 Javelin anti-armor systems, over 700 Switchblade Tactical Unmanned Aerial Systems, 160 155mm Howitzers, 72 105mm Howitzers, eight NASAMS air defense systems, 20 Mi-17 helicopters, 31 Abrams tanks, 109 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles, and one Patriot air defense battery.
Most recently, US President Joe Biden in a surprise visit to the Ukrainian capital Kyiv on Feb. 20 announced a new $500 million military aid package for Ukraine, which includes artillery ammunition for HIMARS and howitzers, in addition to more Javelin anti-tank missile systems and surveillance radars.
Meanwhile, US State Secretary Antony Blinken valued the military aid package at $450 million in a press statement released the same day.
Britain is the second-largest provider of military aid to Ukraine in 2022 behind the US with £2.3 billion ($2.78 billion) having been given to Kyiv, according to a press release by the UK government on Feb. 15.
The press release noted that the UK has provided Ukraine with lethal weaponry, including anti-tank missiles, artillery, air defense systems, armored fighting vehicles, anti-structure munitions, and three M270 long-range multiple launch rocket systems.
“In January 2023, the UK announced a significant uplift in combat support, including the provision of 14 Challenger II main battle tanks,” it further said.
A previous statement by the government noted that the UK has supplied Ukraine with Stormer armored vehicles and thousands of anti-air missiles, including at least 6,000 Starsteak and AMRAAMs, as well as an unspecified number of maritime Brimstone missiles.
The UK has also provided military training to more than 11,000 Ukrainian soldiers and it aims to train up to 20,000 in 2023.
In addition to Challenger II’s, the UK last month announced a significant uplift in combat support for Ukraine, which the Defense Ministry described as “the most significant package of combat power to date.”
The package involves 30 AS-90 self-propelled guns, hundreds of additional armored vehicles, including the Bulldog-armored personnel carrier, a maneuver support package, including minefield breaching and bridge laying capabilities, additional unmanned aerial systems, Starstreak air defense missiles, and 600 Brimstone anti-tank missiles, among others.
Initially reluctant, Germany changed course and started sending heavy weapons for it to defend itself.
For 2023, German funding for Ukraine amounts to a total of €2.2 billion ($2.3 billion), showing an increase compared to the allocation of €2 billion worth of arms and equipment by Berlin to Ukraine from German defense companies.
Berlin’s declared deliveries to Ukraine include five MARS II multiple rocket launchers, 500 Stinger anti-aircraft systems, 2,700 Strela anti-aircraft systems, 32 self-propelled GEPARD anti-aircraft guns, 14 self-propelled Panzerhaubitze 2000 howitzers, nine Beaver bridge-laying tanks, and one IRIS-T air defense system.
The government’s website also listed deliveries either planned or currently being executed, including 14 Leopard 2A6 main battle tanks, 40 Marder infantry fighting vehicles, a Patriot air defense system, 18 wheeled self-propelled RCH 155 howitzers, five self-propelled GEPARD anti-aircraft guns, 16 self-propelled Zuzana 2 howitzers, seven Beaver bridge-laying tanks, and three IRIS-T air defense systems.
On Jan. 25, upon announcing the delivery of 14 Leopard 2A6 tanks to Ukraine, the German government also gave permission for the export of Leopard 2 tanks to Kyiv from other countries.
Separately, on Feb. 7, the German Federal Security Council approved the delivery of 178 upgraded Leopard 1 tanks to Ukraine from industrial stocks.
France’s total military support for Kyiv and its specifics have not been announced by either party.
Certain deals, however, have been announced, most notably the delivery of three batteries of air defense systems, including two Crotales and one SAMP/T, and two LRU multiple rocket launcher units to Ukraine in November, which came after the delivery of 18 Caesar howitzers.
The SAMP/T air defense missile systems were developed by Thales Group and MBDA France and MBDA Italy.
France says it will also supply Ukraine with AMX 10-RC light battle tanks.
Other weaponry said to have been delivered to Ukraine by France include Mistral air defense systems, as well as MILAN, FGM-148 Javelin, and Akeron MP anti-tank guided missile systems.
On Jan. 4, French President Emmanuel Macron announced the transfer of AMX-10RC wheeled tanks and additional ACMAT Bastion multipurpose armored personnel carriers to Ukraine.
Meanwhile, on Jan. 31, French Defense Minister Sebastian Lecornu announced the delivery of a new batch of 12 CAESAR self-propelled guns to Ukraine.
Canada has committed over CAN$1 billion ($738.5 million) in military assistance to Ukraine since the start of the Ukraine war, according to government figures.
The largest chunk of this funding came during the latest G-20 summit in Bali, Indonesia, during which Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced CAN$500 million ($369.2 million) in additional military assistance to war-torn Ukraine.
Canadian military aid to Ukraine included equipment and weaponry, with Ottawa notably announcing the contribution of an unspecified number of M777 howitzers and associated ammunition, at least 100 Carl Gustav M2 recoilless rifles, up to 4,500 M72 rocket launchers, and more than 50 WESCAM MX-15D UAV sensors.
In April, Defense Minister Anita Anand confirmed that the Canadian Armed Forces are training Ukrainian forces on the use of M777 howitzers.
Most recently, on Jan. 18, the Canadian government announced the future transfer of 200 Roshel Senator armored vehicles, while also declaring the completed delivery of four Leopard 2 tanks eight days later.
On Jan. 10, Canada also announced the purchase of a NASAMS air defense system from the US to donate to Ukraine, at a total cost of CAN$406 million ($299.8 million), though its delivery is yet to be finalized.
According to a statement by the Ukrainian Defense Ministry, Belgium transferred a total of €45 million worth of support to Ukraine, prior to a new aid package of €12 million announced by Belgian Defense Minister Ludivine Dedonder in September.
At the start of the Ukraine war, Belgium provided 200 M72 LAW anti-tank weapons and 5,000 FN FNC assault rifles.
“Belgium was one of the first countries to provide military aid to Ukraine. We will continue to do so — fuel, machine guns, self-propelled guns, etc.,” Belgian Prime Minister Alexander De Croo said during a visit to Kyiv on Nov. 26.
More recently, Belgium sent its largest defense package of €92 million to Ukraine on Jan. 27, according to a statement by the government.
Dutch Defense Minister Kajsa Ollongren said in a letter to the Dutch parliament last month that the Netherlands has provided Ukraine with €987 million in military aid, which encompasses €697 million in material assistance.
The assistance consists of ammunition, equipment, and weaponry, including 200 Stinger missiles, 50 FIM-92 Stinger launchers, 50 DM72A1 anti-tank rounds, €15 million worth of AMRAAM missiles, and an unspecified amount of Harpoon missiles.
The Netherlands, the US, and the Czech Republic also delivered 90 T-72 tanks to Ukraine as part of a wider military support package worth €120 million in heavy equipment, according to Ollongren.
The letter also noted contributions of €45 million for commercially acquired goods and a contribution of €100 million for the International Fund for Ukraine, an initiative established during a donor conference in the Danish capital Copenhagen in August which expanded to also finance military training and equipment for Kyiv.
“The Netherlands contributes €25 million to the NATO Ukraine Comprehensive Assistance Package (UCAP), from which non-lethal support such as fuel, medical facilities, winter equipment, and drone jammers is funded,” the letter added.
As of Feb. 6, the Netherlands’ military support for Ukraine exceeded €1 billion, according to an address by Ollongren to the Dutch parliament.
The following day, the Netherlands, together with Denmark and Germany, said it will supply at least 100 Leopard 1A5 main battle tanks to Ukraine.
At the start of the war, Greece provided Ukraine with two C-130 military transport aircraft.
In late May, Greece agreed with Germany to send older BMP-1 armored combat vehicles to Ukraine from its own stock. Berlin, in return, will deliver newer Marder 1A3s to Athens.
Greece has also been declaring its readiness to send S-300 air defense systems from Crete to Ukraine, to which Russia said it would view the move as a “hostile” action towards Moscow.
Later, on Jan. 31, amid talks of providing Leopard 2 tanks to Ukraine, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said Athens will not provide Leopard 2 tanks to Kyiv.
However, the Greek Defense Ministry did confirm the provision of 20 BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicles to Ukraine on Feb. 14.
According to the Foreign Ministry, Finland’s support to Ukraine in 2022 totaled nearly €300 million, around €200 millions of which consisted of material assistance related to defense and other material assistance.
The Finnish Defense Ministry said in August it would send 20 service personnel to the UK to take part in a training program for the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
Initial transfers of equipment to Ukraine include 2,000 helmets and bulletproof vests, while 11 military aid packages have been sent since February 2022, the contents of which have not been announced officially.
Finland later announced, on Jan. 20, the delivery of the largest batch of military aid to Ukraine since the beginning of the war, in the amount of €400 million, which includes heavy artillery and ammunition.
Meanwhile, on Jan. 23, the Finnish Defense Ministry announced it will deliver another package its 13th defense support package to Ukraine, which includes three Leopard 2 battle tanks.
In November 2022, Estonian Defense Minister Kusti Salm said Tallinn sent around €300 million in military aid to Ukraine.
Estonia sent an unspecified number of FH70 howitzers and seven Alvis 4 protected mobility vehicles to Ukraine in May 2022.
At the start of the Ukraine war, nine D-30 howitzers were also delivered to Kyiv.
Later, on Jan. 19, the Estonian government decided to provide military assistance to Ukraine in the amount of €113 million, which consists of howitzers, ammunition, artillery support equipment, and grenade launchers.
The latest assistance increases the country’s total to €370 million, which is said to be slightly more than 1% of Estonia’s GDP, according to a statement.
In the early weeks of the Ukraine war, Spain sent 1,370 Instalaza C-90 anti-tank grenade launchers, as well as an unspecified number of light machine guns to Kyiv.
Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba announced on Nov. 2, 2022 that a package of military aid from Spain, which included a battery of the Aspide missile system and ammunition, four Hawk air defense systems, anti-tank missile systems, mortars, and munitions, would be provided to Ukraine after talks with Spanish officials.
Spanish Defense Minister Margarita Robles said on Nov. 10 that two more Hawk air defense systems would be sent to Kyiv under the request of her Ukrainian counterpart Oleksii Reznikov, bringing the total amount to six.
Following Germany’s approval for countries intending to send their own Leopard 2 tanks to Ukraine, Robles said on Feb. 22 that Madrid will deliver six Leopard 2 tanks to Kyiv late March or early April.
During a visit to Kyiv on Feb. 23, Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez said his country will consider sending four more Leopard 2 tanks.
In the wake of the war, then-Swedish Foreign Minister Ann Linde said her country would send military aid to Ukraine comprising 5,000 anti-tank weapons, 5,000 helmets, 5,000 body shields, and 135,000 field rations, as well as a fund of 500 million Swedish krona ($47.5 million) to the Ukrainian army.
Since then, Sweden has sent eight more military aid packages to Ukraine, with the largest sent in November, totaling 3 billion Swedish kronor ($287 million), according to Swedish Prime Minister Ulf Kristersson.
While details with regards to the military aid packages have been limited, Ukrainian Defense Minister Oleksii Reznikov said the packages contain air defense systems, ammunition, and vehicles, as well as personal equipment, notably for the winter months.
In a later statement, on Feb. 8, the Swedish parliament confirmed its 10th military aid package worth 4.3 billion Swedish kronor ($411.6 million), consisting of advanced Archer self-propelled artillery systems, Stridsfordon 90 armored personnel carriers, anti-tank weapons, assault rifles, and de-mining equipment.
Prior to the start of the war, Latvia delivered Stinger anti-aircraft missile systems to Ukraine.
After the start of the war, the Latvian Defense Ministry announced on March 2, 2022 that 90 unmanned aircraft donated by Latvian companies were delivered to the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
On Aug. 15, the Ukrainian Defense Ministry said it received two Mi-17 and two Mi-2 helicopters from Latvia.
Latvia has also provided Ukraine with military equipment worth more than €300 million, the speaker of the Latvian parliament said in an interview with Ukrainian media on Dec. 9.
“Now Latvia is one of the foremost countries to provide military assistance to Ukraine. We have provided military assistance, and military equipment worth more than €300 million. These are howitzers, drones, as well as other facilities, such as equipment for military personnel,” said Edvards Smiltens.
Smiltens noted that this amount constitutes a third of the country’s military budget, and puts it at the forefront among countries in proportion to GDP volume.
“We obviously understand that this is a battle for freedom and freedom is not given just like that, for free. Ukrainians pay for this with their blood, and we pay only with money, only with support. You are fighting for us as well,” he said.
On Jan. 18, following a trip by Latvia’s defense minister to Kyiv, the government pledged a defense package, including Stinger anti-aircraft missile systems, two Mi-17 helicopters, dozens of machine guns with ammunition, several dozen UAVs, and spare parts for the M109 howitzer.
According to the Lithuanian Defense Ministry, Vilnius’ military assistance to Ukraine is so far comprised of “Stinger air defense systems, anti-armor weapons, tactical vests and helmets, 120mm mortars, small arms, ammunition, thermal imaging equipment, drones, anti-drone equipment, surveillance radars, M113 armored personnel carriers, trucks, and all-terrain vehicles.”
In an interview with reporters on Dec. 6, Lithuanian Defense Minister Arvydas Anusauskas said his country’s military aid to Ukraine amounted to €240 million.
“The Defense Ministry’s budget for 2023 earmarks around €40 million for support to Ukraine, with the necessary items to be purchased from Lithuanian producers,” Anusauskas further said.
On Jan. 19, Lithuania said it will send to Ukraine a new military support worth €85 million that consists of dozens of Bofors L70 anti-aircraft guns with tens of thousands of ammunitions and two Mi-8 helicopters.
Luxembourg’s Defense Minister Francois Bausch said on Feb. 15 that his country provided a total of nearly €90 million in military aid to Ukraine.
“This represents 17% of our total annual defense expenditure,” Bausch said, according to a press release by the government after a NATO Defense Ministers summit in the Belgian capital Brussels.
In a statement by the Defense Ministry, a list of equipment and weaponry transferred to Kyiv was released, which notably included 28 HMMWV vehicles with 20 12.7mm machine guns.
Other notable equipment and weaponry include 102 NLAW anti-tank weapons, 600 BM 21 multiple rocket launcher missiles, six Primoco One 150 unmanned aerial vehicles, seven Jeep Wrangler military jeeps, and 12,500 RPG-7 high explosive anti-tank grenades.
The Norwegian government said on Sept. 30 that it had allocated 3 billion Norwegian kroner ($300.4 million) to militarily support Ukraine in 2022.
“Norway has donated helmets, splinter vests, M72 light anti-tank weapons, M109 self-propelled artillery and ammunition, Mistral air defense, Hellfire missiles, IVECO armored vehicles, and night optics. It has also been decided to donate M270 long-range rocket artillery (MLRS),” the statement said.
In a separate article on the Norwegian government’s website, Oslo said it will allocate 1 billion Norwegian kroner ($100 million) to Ukraine for 2023.
“Approximately 700 million kroner of this 1 billion will cover additional donations of military equipment that have taken place in 2022,” it added.
According to the same article, notable military equipment provided by Norway to Ukraine includes 2,000 M72 light anti-armor weapons, 100 Mistral air defense missiles, 22 self-propelled M109 howitzers, 14 Iveco LAV III armored vehicles, and close to 160 Hellfire missiles.
On Jan. 25, Norway said it will supply to Ukraine eight Leopard 2 tanks, and most recently, on Feb. 16, it announced that it approved an aid package worth 75 billion Norwegian kroner ($7.2 billion) for Ukraine, which will extend over five years and consist of both military and humanitarian assistance.
According to the Danish Foreign Ministry, Copenhagen has contributed approximately €659 million in military aid to Ukraine.
In terms of direct military contributions to aid Ukraine, Denmark has donated 2,700 shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons, 2,000 TYR protective vests, and 700 hygiene kits.
Separately, on Aug. 11, 2022, Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen announced a new comprehensive donation package of approximately 820 million Danish kroner ($117 million) to finance weapons and training.
Frederiksen said 100 million Danish kroner ($14.3 million) from the package will go to support the basic military training of Ukrainian soldiers.
Earlier, the government announced it would send 130 military instructors to join the training of Ukrainian soldiers in the UK.
Immediately after the start of Russia’s war on Ukraine, Italy approved military aid for Kyiv worth €110 million, according to a statement by then-Foreign Minister Luigi Di Maio.
Since then, Italy has approved five substantial military support packages for the defense of Ukraine, inclusive of both lethal and non-lethal equipment based on the needs of Ukraine’s Armed Forces, according to the Italian Foreign Ministry.
Defense Minister Guido Crosetto said in November that discussions are underway by Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni’s new government to approve Italy’s sixth military aid package to the country.
On Dec. 1, Rome approved a decree that extends the authorization for the transfer of military equipment, materials, and vehicles until Dec. 31, 2023.
Afterwards, during a visit by Meloni to Kyiv on Feb. 21, Rome announced a sixth military aid package to Ukraine, including not only SAMP/T air defense missile systems, but also Spada and Skyguard air defense systems without providing a specific amount.
During the World Economic Forum in Davos on Jan. 24, Polish President Andrzej Duda announced that Warsaw’s military support for Ukraine since the start of the war reached $2 billion.
“In the initial phase of the war, Poland handed over to Ukraine all of its Piorun man-portable anti-aircraft missile systems, which at that time were in service with the Polish military,” Duda said, further noting that a significant number of Krab self-propelled guns and over 260 Т-72 tanks in various modifications were sent to Ukraine.
Since then, Warsaw has provided multiple forms of weaponry to Kyiv, including surface-to-air missile systems, such as S-125 Newa SCs and 9K33 Osa-AK(M)s, and most recently Osa-AKM-P1s.
On Jan. 26, Poland announced that it will deliver 14 Leopard 2A4 tanks to Ukraine, while also announcing another 30 T-72M and 30 PT-91 tanks to Kyiv the day after.
Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Ireland, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia, among others, have also contributed to Ukraine’s defense efforts.
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